Smart Glasses, AR, VR and MR: Head-Worn Devices in the Enterprise

Watch Picavi’s Johanna Bellenberg talk about head-worn devices with the very people implementing the technology at Walmart, GE Transportation, Gensler, USPS, and FM Global. The group shares the insights, “aha” moments, and limitations realized in implementing AR/VR glasses and headsets; and come to a common consensus on the value of these technologies especially for employee training.



AR/VR is helping the Postal Service meet the demands of a changing digital world, in which its 20-year-old fleet of vehicles needs fixing and replacing and more and more part-time employees need fast training. Passing information from carrier to carrier via a physical book containing information on every route isn’t an efficient method, not with millions of delivery points each day. Using AR/VR for vehicle maintenance and to eliminate 50% of training time for new employees is what it takes to keep the Postal Service alive.

As there isn’t a solid use case yet for HMDs in the retail world, Walmart is using VR at its training academies to simulate exceptional customer experience problems you wouldn’t want to create in a real store and shopping events that only happen once a year. VR is ideal as you “can get multiple reps over and over.” For Walmart, how associates feel on the floor is important. While allowing them to be hands-free and heads-up in stores might help them engage more confidently with customers, VR training goes a long way towards increasing their confidence before they have to face shoppers.

FM Global, a commercial property risk insurer that counts one out of every three Fortune 1000 companies as a customer, is using AR for remote engineering surveys of client facilities and VR as a selling tool. If political restrictions make it difficult to send out a field engineer, FM Global sends a pair of smart glasses to the customer, having a remote expert guide the customer through the task. VR has also proven to be a compelling medium for convincing policyholders to take the proper measures in case of a flood or fire by showing them the potential damage.

At GE Transportation, training doesn’t always mean a brand new person needing to learn a brand new process, not when you’re dealing with 20,000 locomotive SKUs that ship all over the world. So, GE is using AR/VR to design and build kits of locomotive parts for operators, thinking through the presentation of these kits and how they align to manufacturing or service processes. From a plant layout perspective, VR is also incredibly useful for designing and planning operations. 

Finally at Gensler, visualization technologies are impacting how architects design and develop structures of every kind. The architecture and design firm is also considering how these tools will impact the places it designs as those buildings and environments mature. The environments we work in are increasingly contributing to the jobs we do, so Gensler is thinking about the future: AR/VR will influence the structures we design (not just help design them) because of the way they will fundamentally change how we consume information.

AR/VR and Wearables: Shaping the Future of Construction

Bechtel, Caterpillar, CDM Smith, MacDonald-Miller Facility Solutions, Martin Brothers Construction, Brady Services, Rogers-O’Brien Construction… These are just a few of the engineering and construction players who recognize the potential for wearables, AR and VR to increase efficiency and productivity, facilitate better communication and collaboration, and improve safety on the job site.

When we last checked in on the construction industry, the difficulty of implementing wearables posed a great challenge. The devices weren’t robust enough, IT departments were unprepared, etc. Solution providers have since worked to make their products more suitable for construction environments, and companies are increasingly developing PoCs, setting up pilots, and thinking ahead. The construction industry is in need of disruption by wearable technology for a number of reasons:

Poor Safety

Safety is a top priority on every construction project and yet working in construction – as a laborer, equipment operator, steel worker, carpenter – is still one of the most dangerous occupations in the world. The most workplace accidents? Construction. One of the highest rates of fatal injuries? Construction. OSHA has even dubbed a nickname, the Fatal Four, for the leading causes of construction worker deaths: Falls, electrocutions, getting struck by an object, and getting caught in/between objects. Sadly, the number of deaths in this industry has been steadily increasing, but emerging technologies present new opportunities to make the construction site safer.

Rising Demand, Expectations and Costs vs. Shortage of Skilled Labor

Infrastructure and housing needs are growing globally; so too is the scale and complexity of construction projects as older infrastructure needs replacing and climate change challenges our communities. On top of demand, material and labor costs are rising; and customer expectations as well as the nature of contracting are changing: Customers want high-performing (sustainable) buildings, shorter timeframes, and less financial risk. E&C firms are being asked to adopt green construction practices and assume costs as contracting shifts toward public-private partnerships and lump-sum, turnkey contracts. Competition for bids is increasing, as well, as clients demand unbundled contracts in order to cherry-pick among subcontractor offers.

All of the above might be manageable if not for a serious labor and managerial shortage. Employers are struggling to staff job sites and to stay on schedule for projects. Several factors are contributing to this problem:

  • The industry laid off 40% of its workforce (2.3M jobs) during the last recession. Many of those workers did not return.
  • There is less emphasis today on the trades and technical training in schools.
  • Aging workers are leaving the job faster than they can be replaced.

And so, firms are forced to spend more money for slimmer profits; raising wages to recruit workers, shelling out healthcare and workers’ compensation costs, and paying higher prices for supplies.

Simply put, construction companies need to find and train skilled labor fast. They need to be more productive with less if, as the McKinsey Global Institute estimates, the world will have to spend $57 trillion on infrastructure by 2030.

Uncertain Times

In the U.S. and among America’s trade partners, there is a feeling of uncertainty under the current administration. Will existing trade agreements stay in place? Might possible trade conflicts raise material prices? Will new immigration policies further weaken the construction labor force? Will there be steady federal funding of infrastructure projects? To say the least, E&C firms may have to quickly adjust to the whims of the White House.

Industry Trends vs. Old Ways 

Although one of the world economy’s largest sectors, Construction is one of the least “digitized” and least productive industries. It’s also wasteful in terms of time, labor and materials; and very much stuck in its ways, including being slow to adopt new technology and underinvesting in IT and R&D.

A typical large-scale construction project takes 20% longer to finish than scheduled and comes in 80% over budget. This productivity problem is, of course, a result of the labor shortage but the nature of construction itself also impairs productivity: Construction projects are highly fragmented and unpredictable, with multiple parties and work crews involved and remote worksites that are constantly changing as building progresses. It doesn’t help that the industry still relies mainly on paper drawings, blueprints, orders, logs and reports. And then there’s the lost-in-translation factor: Blueprints are flat but structures are three-dimensional—a discrepancy that makes communication and collaboration difficult. With the architect of the building, the owner and the various contractors working off of different versions of reality; errors, order changes, delays and rework are inevitable.

Construction projects today are not being optimally coordinated, and the labor force is not being sufficiently developed or protected from harm; but there is tremendous value to be gained if only the construction industry would digitally transform. Emerging technologies including wearable devices are the answer to many of the sector’s ails; to realizing a more connected jobsite and enabling digital collaboration, and becoming more productive, timely, efficient and safe. Read on to learn how wearables are being applied in construction:

Top Applications:

Safety and Efficiency

Most construction project managers can’t tell you the number of workers on site or where those workers are located at any given time; and yet knowing where your assets are, including people, equipment and inventory, is half the battle in avoiding inefficiencies and keeping workers safe in construction. Eliminating paper from workflows (ex. taking building plans out of workers’ hands and putting them directly in their field of view) would address another major source of inefficiency.

The construction jobsite is a hectic place, with multiple contractors and their crews working at the same time, so inefficiencies can go unnoticed; but strategic use of robust sensors could make a big difference. Some companies are already turning to IoT solutions like drone surveying and automation to improve site operations. Real-time visibility into jobsite operations is the ultimate goal, giving project managers the ability to make intelligent decisions based upon real-time information. After all, how can you build smart buildings if the building site itself isn’t smart?

Real-time information comes from tracking workers (GPS and EHS sensors,) tracking inventory (RFID tags,) and monitoring equipment health and repair status. All this data yields actionable insight through advanced analytics—insight that can be pushed to the right person at the right time via wearable devices to optimize the jobsite.

Sensors in a variety of form factors can track workers’ biometrics and surroundings (ex. heart rate, fatigue, gas exposure) along with their location and movement (ex. proximity to danger zones, falls, bad form.) To this end, a number of companies are making construction safety clothing and gear “smart” with embedded sensor technology. The data can be relayed from the jobsite to determine unsafe working conditions and notify workers when dangerous levels are reached or there’s potential for injury. In addition to displaying glanceable safety info, wearables can also have a panic button feature enabling the user to call for help.

Tracking workers keeps them safe. Live location and status information also improves efficiency: Knowing where crews, materials and equipment are and how these assets flow through the work site, knowing when inventory stocks are running low, and knowing when equipment is on the verge of malfunctioning improves project coordination and jobsite organization.

A change in ergonomics would further boost safety and efficiency. Exoskeletons are a rather extreme example that will nevertheless empower construction workers to manage physically demanding tasks with less risk of injury. More practical today are smart Augmented Reality glasses: Constantly looking down at paper plans or BIM models on tablets is dangerous. –> Wearing smart glasses (or an AR helmet,) a person can look at a BIM model overlaid onto the built environment while remaining heads-up and hands-free. Conducting inspections with a checklist in hand, holding up a camera to take photos, and taking written notes is slow and not very accurate. –> Smart glasses allow for hands-free documentation of building progress (including voice memos,) the ability to annotate and update blueprints in the field, even view automated dashboards from live field data. AR glasses, and even more so Virtual Reality headsets, can also be used for faster, safer and more effective training on heavy equipment; and to visualize where assets should go in planning staging areas, supply deliveries and equipment storage.

Of course, taking the data collected from different devices on the jobsite and turning it into quality, actionable information that gives a manager or worker greater context or situational awareness is not easy. Additionally, employee tracking can be a sticky issue due to privacy concerns. And deploying digital solutions at scale, across construction sites that are geographically dispersed and essentially “shared” among firms of varying size and sophistication, is also problematic. None of this is going to get any easier, however, so waiting doesn’t put a company in a better position down the road. The time to overcome these challenges is now.

Design Visualization, Communication, and Productivity

The rise of Augmented and Virtual Reality signals a new era in design visualization. Better visualization capabilities improve communication, speed up decision making, shorten the project lifecycle, and reduce material costs. Thus, companies are developing BIM- and CAD-based design and construction solutions for AR/VR platforms.

Buildings today are usually planned out on flat screens and pieces of paper, yet 2D drawings and scale models of an architect’s 3D vision are hard for project owners to interpret, and not a foolproof guide for contractors either. The leap from 2D blueprints or even 3D models on a computer screen to the real built environment is great enough to cause misinterpretations and errors requiring changes to be made after construction is already underway; but what if you could virtually walk through a design or interact with digital content in the physical environment? That is the power of AR/VR in E&C.

Virtual Reality is useful for design conception and group design review. Multiple users wearing VR headsets, regardless of their location, can interact within the same virtual environment, identifying issues and making necessary changes before building begins. VR can also be used by project owners and builders to visualize the final space or structure. During construction, workers can use AR glasses to view schematics and detailed specs like electricity floor plans overlaid on top of the building site for guidance, helping them work faster and avoid mistakes.

AR and VR also enhance communication, as does instant documentation and sharing of information enabled by hands-free wearables. Disagreements, mistakes and delays arise on a construction project when not every stakeholder is able to envision the design and provide feedback; information sharing is slow and imprecise; and different contractors use different platforms for design and project planning. Everyone involved, from the architect/engineer to the end user, needs to understand the design; and contractors need to be able to communicate in a standardized way, providing updates on building progress, cost and schedule.

Smart glasses present a quick and accurate way to capture, view, update and convey jobsite information. Visual information is universally understood—smart glasses can take photos and record video via voice command; and that data can be integrated into live building models and workflows, and shared with off-site decision makers and remote experts in real time to more effectively explain and respond to issues.

AR/VR in the design process and to share ideas increases productivity, with virtual reality having a bigger impact on the design side (facilitating group design, expediting design review) and augmented reality helping out on the construction site. Smart glasses help construction go smoother and faster in several ways:

  • Augmented work instructions and other (real-time) task-based information in one’s FOV: On-the-ground crew can access information while working with their hands, wearing gloves or using tools.
  • Direct, hands-free connection to remote experts and supervisors: Live photo/video/audio streaming allows for faster issue resolution and decision making; and with expert oversight lesser-skilled workers can be as productive as experienced ones.
  • AR inspections: In addition to smart glasses-enabled remote inspections, managers and contractors can wear AR glasses to view a 3D model of a building over the as-built environment, comparing the two as they walk through the site.

Despite the high implementation costs, leveraging AR/VR in construction can have tremendous ROI. The industry actually has somewhat of a head start in taking advantage of new realities thanks to advancements in visualization software like BIM and CAD; but to adopt new solutions capable of converting those platforms to VR simulations, E&C firms will have to increase IT spending.

Training and Recruiting  

Construction companies could use VR headsets to design better, make the jobsite more connected with a variety of sensors, and give AR glasses to workers to reduce errors; but that won’t be enough to make up for the fact that the skilled labor workforce is shrinking rapidly. Along with attracting and training new talent, E&C firms must harness the knowledge of industry veterans and even prolong their careers if possible.  

Augmented and Virtual Reality present new paradigms for training employees to perform complex procedures and physical tasks, including emergency safety procedures, operating a crane, etc. It has been shown that experiential learning is more effective than using written or video material to transmit skills. Virtual Reality immersion is the next best thing to hands-on learning in the field, and a more ideal method for preparing workers for real-life situations on the jobsite than the static, standard training most construction workers receive today. And new tech like AR/VR is attractive to Millennial workers who are able to transition skills learned in virtual reality to the real world more easily.

Thanks to smart glasses, new workers can also train on the job without risking the integrity of the project (i.e. without making rookie mistakes and hurting quality.) Following step-by-step instructions in a heads-up display and receiving real-time remote guidance from older, more experienced workers—that’s learning by doing, and it accomplishes training while also contributing to building progress.

Exoskeletons might help extend the physical careers of aging workers, but smart glasses offer a more realistic, immediate proposition for preserving these employees. By wearing smart glasses to record their work from a first-person point of view, older workers can capture their knowledge for the next generation, creating training material for new recruits to reference on the jobsite using the same devices. And, of course, the most experienced workers can continue to provide remote support, viewing the jobsite through another’s eyes (or smart glasses) once the physical demands of the job become too much. So instead of a mass exodus of talent, smart glass technology could help transfer the value of older skilled workers from the construction site to a central planning office.

Much of this technology is expensive, especially the Augmented Reality helmet and exoskeletons, and challenging to implement given the rugged conditions and remote locations of most construction sites. But consider the productivity and safety gains, weighing these against the rising costs of workplace injuries; need to grow and empower the workforce to balance out the loss of retiring workers; new design possibilities, etc. From sensors embedded in familiar PPE to strength- (and safety-) enhancing robotic suits, perhaps the most attractive potential benefit of wearable technologies in construction is the cost savings. Better trained workers have fewer accidents; more informed workers make fewer errors; a connected jobsite eliminates inefficiencies; and wearable-enhanced communication prevents common hiccups. The result is less injury-related costs, fewer expensive building delays and rework, projects completed on time and within budget, more satisfied customers, and more profit. That’s the bottom line.


The Fall Enterprise Wearable Technology Summit 2017 taking place October 18-19, 2017 in Boston, MA is the leading event for wearable technology in enterprise. It is also the only true enterprise event in the wearables space, with the speakers and audience members hailing from top enterprise organizations across the industry spectrum. Consisting of real-world case studies, engaging workshops, and expert-led panel discussions on such topics as enterprise applications for Augmented and Virtual Reality, head-mounted displays, and body-worn devices, plus key challenges, best practices, and more; EWTS is the best opportunity for you to hear and learn from those organizations who have successfully utilized wearables in their operations. 

photo credit: dmitryzhkov 2_DSC8644 via photopin (license)

Just in Time: AR/VR Spark a Digital Renaissance in Aviation and Aerospace

About 20 years ago, Boeing, the world’s largest aerospace company, identified the need for a hands-free, heads-up technology in its operations. Flash forward to 2014, when a device fitting this vision (Google Glass) finally appeared on the scene. Today, the aviation and aerospace industries are experiencing a digital renaissance, and the timing is critical for several reasons:

Demand is high

Demand is being driven by two factors: 1) Rapidly aging fleets that need to be replaced or maintained at great cost; and 2) New, more technologically advanced aircraft needed to stay competitive. (Boeing, for one, has a backlog of some 5,000 planes it is under contract to build.) Next-generation aircraft boast features like advanced avionics, noise reduction capabilities, improved interior cabin designs, and greater fuel efficiency. Aviation and aerospace companies are under pressure to ramp up production to replace customers’ older fleets and supply them with state-of-the-art vehicles. And, of course, as demand for new aircraft rises so too does the need to operate and maintain those crafts.

A talent gap is creating a need for fast, low-cost training

As in pretty much all manufacturing sectors, the aviation and aerospace industries are dealing with a skilled labor crunch as experienced workers retire and leave the workforce, taking their careers’ worth of knowledge with them. By some estimates, the aerospace industry is going to need to attract and train nearly 700,000 new maintenance technicians alone by the year 2035. More jobs are being created and more baby boomers retiring than can be filled or replaced by new workers. Aerospace manufacturers and suppliers are therefore looking for innovative technologies to maximize the productivity of their existing workforces and quickly onboard new workers.

The stakes are high: Operations are complex, downtime is costly, safety is crucial, and the market is competitive

Building aircraft (commercial airplanes, military jets, spacecraft, etc.) and the engines and propulsion units that drive them involves extremely complex processes in which thousands of moving parts are assembled in precise order, carefully inspected, and maintained for years. Speed is desirable to meet demand and for competitive advantage, yet there can be no compromise or negligence when it comes to accuracy and safety—after all, we’re talking about aircraft that transport hundreds of passengers across oceans or even dodge enemy missiles at over 1,000 mph. Boeing, Airbus, Lockheed Martin and other large firms are all vying to sell to the U.S. Department of Defense, NASA and large airlines (the aviation, aerospace and defense industries’ biggest U.S. customers;) so errors and downtime are, of course, expensive and bad for business, and can also greatly affect human lives.

To accelerate production, close the talent gap, reduce errors, limit downtime, and improve safety; the leading aviation and aerospace companies are employing wearable technology, especially smart (Augmented Reality) glasses. In general, smart glasses are good for complex industrial processes that are very hands-on, time-consuming, error-prone, and loaded with information—processes like wiring an electrical system or installing the cabin of an airplane. AR glasses and VR headsets are proving useful in aircraft assembly, quality and safety inspection, field maintenance and repair, and training. The technology is providing aviation and aerospace workers with instant, hands-free access to critical information, and reducing training requirements for technicians and operators alike. Here’s how some of the aerospace giants are applying wearable tech in their operations:


In 2015, the French aerospace company teamed up with Accenture on a proof of concept in which technicians at Airbus’ Toulouse plant used industrial-grade smart glasses to reduce the complexity of the cabin furnishing process on the A330 final assembly line, decreasing the time required to complete the task and improving accuracy.

Sans smart glasses, operators would have to go by complex drawings to mark the position of seats and other fittings on the cabin floor. With Augmented Reality, a task that required several people over several days can be completed by a single worker in a matter of hours, with millimeter precision and 0 errors.

Airbus went ahead with this application: Technicians today use Vuzix smart glasses to bring up individual cabin plans, customization information and other AR items over their view of the cabin marking zone. The solution also validates each mark that is made, checking for accuracy and quality. The aerospace giant is looking to expand its use of smart glasses to other aircraft assembly lines (ex. in mounting flight equipment on the No. 2 A330neo) and other Airbus divisions.


Every Boeing plane contains thousands of wires that connect its different electrical systems. Workers construct large portions of this wiring – “wire harnesses” – at a time—a seemingly monumental task demanding intense concentration. For years, they worked off PDF-based assembly instructions on laptops to locate the right wires and connect them in the right sequence. This requires shifting one’s hands and attention constantly between the harness being wired and the “roadmap” on the computer screen.

In 2016, Boeing carried out a Google Glass pilot with Upskill (then APX Labs,) in which the company saw a 25% improvement in performance in wire harness assembly. Today, the company is using smart glasses powered by Upskill’s Skylight platform to deliver heads-up, hands-free instructions to wire harness workers in real time, helping them work faster with an error rate of nearly zero. Technicians use gesture and voice commands to view the assembly roadmap for each order in their smart glasses display, access instructional videos, and receive remote expert assistance.

Boeing believes the technology could be used anywhere its workers rely on paper instructions, helping the company deliver planes faster. AR/VR are also significantly cutting training times and assisting with product development. For instance, HoloLens is proving useful in the development of Starliner, a small crew transport module for the ISS.

Boeing’s Brian Laughlin will lead a thought-provoking closing brainstorm on Day One of EWTS Fall 2017

GE Aviation

General Electric is using Augmented Reality and other IoT technologies in multiple areas of its far-ranging operations. At GE Aviation, mechanics recently tested a solution consisting of Upskill’s AR platform on Glass Enterprise Edition and a connected (WiFi-enabled) torque wrench.

The pilot involved 15 mechanics at GE Aviation’s Cincinnati manufacturing facility, each receiving step-by-step instructions and guiding visuals via Glass during routine engine assembly and maintenance tasks. At any step requiring the use of the smart wrench, the Skylight solution ensured the worker tightened the bolt properly, automatically verifying and recording every torqued nut in real time.

GE Aviation mechanics normally use paper- or computer-based instructions for tasks, and have to walk away from the job whenever they need to document their work. With smart glasses, workers were 8-12% more efficient, able to follow instructions in their line of sight and automatically document steps thanks to the device’s built-in camera. And reducing errors in assembly and maintenance saves GE and its customers millions of dollars.

Lockheed Martin

In early 2015 it came out that Lockheed Martin was trialing the Epson Moverio BT-200 glasses with partner NGRAIN, to provide real-time visuals to its engineers during assembly of the company’s F-35 fighter jets and ensure every component be installed in the right place. Previously, only a team of experienced technicians could do the job, but with Augmented Reality an engineer with little training can follow renderings with part numbers and ordered instructions seen as overlay images through his/her smart glasses, right on the plane being built.

In the trial, Lockheed engineers were able to work 30% faster and with 96% accuracy. Those workers were learning by doing on the job as opposed to training in a classroom environment, which amounted to less time and cost for training. And although increased accuracy means fewer repairs, the AR solution could be used to speed up the repair process, too, from days- to just hours-long, with one engineer annotating another’s field of view. At the time, however, Lockheed acknowledged that getting the technology onto actual (secured) military bases would be difficult.

Lockheed is also interested in Virtual Reality, seeing AR/VR as key to lowering acquisition costs (all costs from the design/construction phase of a ship to when the vessel is decommissioned.) The company is applying VR to the design of radar systems for navy ships. The challenge lies in integrating the radar system with a ship’s other systems, which requires very precise installation. VR can help identify errors and issues during the design stage and prevent expensive corrections.

Using HTC Vive headsets, engineers can virtually walk through digital mock-ups of a ship’s control rooms and assess things like accessibility to equipment and lighting. Lockheed is also using Microsoft’s HoloLens to assist young naval engineers with maintenance tasks at sea—much more effective than a dense manual.

*Learn more about this application from Richard Rabbitz of Lockheed Martin Rotary Mission Systems (RMS) at EWTS Fall ‘17

Lockheed is allegedly saving $10 million a year from its use of AR/VR in the production line of its space assets, as well, by using devices like the Oculus Rift to evaluate human factors and catch engineering mistakes early. For the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and GPS 3 satellite system, Lockheed ran virtual simulations in which a team of engineers rehearsed assembling the vehicles in order to identify issues and improvements. A network platform allows engineers from all over to participate, saving the time and money of travelling.

Last but not least, Lockheed Martin is also actively developing and testing commercial industrial exoskeletons. Keith Maxwell, the Senior Product Manager of Exoskeleton Technologies at Lockheed, attested to this at the Spring 2017 EWTS. The FORTIS exoskeleton is an unpowered, lightweight suit, the arm of which – the Fortis Tool Arm – is available as a separate product for operating heavy power tools with less risk of muscle fatigue and injury.

While Augmented Reality has been around for decades in the form of pilots’ HMDs, only now has the technology advanced enough to become a standard tool of engineers, mechanics and aircraft operators across aviation and aerospace operations. In a high-tech industry like aerospace, AR/VR are critical for keeping up production during a mass talent exodus from the workforce. Workers won’t need years of experience to build a plane if they have on-demand access to instructions, reference materials, tutorials and expert help in their field of view.


The Fall Enterprise Wearable Technology Summit 2017 taking place October 18-19, 2017 in Boston, MA is the leading event for wearable technology in enterprise. It is also the only true enterprise event in the wearables space, with the speakers and audience members hailing from top enterprise organizations across the industry spectrum. Consisting of real-world case studies, engaging workshops, and expert-led panel discussions on such topics as enterprise applications for Augmented and Virtual Reality, head-mounted displays, and body-worn devices, plus key challenges, best practices, and more; EWTS is the best opportunity for you to hear and learn from those organizations who have successfully utilized wearables in their operations. 

How Your Business Can Prepare for an Augmented Reality Future

Whether you believe Apple’s latest announcements mark the arrival of mainstream Augmented Reality or still think mass use of AR is years away; smart (AR) glasses are the future. The question is how long we will hold onto our smartphones for (and yes, which device and/or platform will tip the technology in the consumer market’s favor.)

Just as glasses are the ultimate form factor for workers in factories, out in the field, in the O.R., etc.; heads-up and hands-free is ideal for consumers. The biggest problem with our phones is that we carry them everywhere and are constantly looking down at them. AR will not only provide better contextual information to enrich our daily lives, but it will also revive an element of society that today can feel somewhat foreign compared to texting or email (especially to Millennials;) and that is face-to-face human interaction. (FaceTime doesn’t count.)

So why aren’t people more eager to free their hands and gaze from a hand-held screen? Smartwatches seem to have broken into the mainstream or are at least accepted by consumers. What is it about putting on a pair of glasses? It’s not just aesthetics and privacy concerns. In enterprise, you identify a problem in the workplace – some source of inefficiency – that AR can address; but when the work day is done, what is the problem that AR would fix, that would motivate us to finally give up our phones beyond sheer convenience or entertainment? I can only guess as it’s outside my area of expertise.

Nevertheless, one day AR glasses will be acceptable outside the workplace, and once that happens a whole new world of enterprise applications will open up—those applications that depend upon consumers owning/wearing glasses and headsets, and not necessarily as often as they carry their smartphones now.


So, what can enterprises do in the meantime, while waiting for consumer AR glasses to take off?

1) Provide the experience for the customer or partner, like “HaaS” (hardware as a service) or an in-store demo. Some architects, realtors, automotive companies, major retailers and even airlines are already doing this, and some manufacturers are supplying customers with smart glasses to facilitate remote equipment troubleshooting and customer support.

2) Share the benefits of smart glasses with the customer/partner. Ex. HVAC worker wearing smart glasses to a job to let the customer see the problem or service in real time; a store salesperson doing the same to help an online shopper make a purchasing decision; a flight attendant viewing information about a passenger to provide better, more personalized service; doctors wearing glasses with patients, etc.

Or 3) Start with a mobile app or create a 360-degree video with the intent of making it heads-up in AR or VR in the future. While this can be very expensive (a 360˚ video can cost anywhere between $10,000 and $100,000 to produce, according to Forrester Research,) it puts the organization in the best position to capitalize on these technologies in different form factors and environments down the road. Until then, the videos can be shared on social media, at pop-up events, on the company website, etc.


Some example use cases:


In dealerships across Australia, Hyundai has introduced the Hyundai AR Showroom app for the iPad, a sales tool for dealers to show car shoppers the built-in safety and performance features of the “all-new i30.”

The app, created by Auggd, allows the salesperson to demonstrate features of Hyundai’s reinvented hatchback that are normally difficult to explain in a showroom environment (without having multiple vehicles on the floor.) By holding up an iPad in front of the real i30, shoppers can manipulate a 3D model overlay of the car; they can change its appearance and accessory options, and view animations of safety features like autonomous emergency braking and lane-keeping assist.

It seems Hyundai has been making an effort to get both its customers and representatives familiar with Augmented Reality. In early 2016, the South Korean automaker created an AR owner’s manual for some of its more popular models. The manual app and new Hyundai AR Showroom app could easily transition to glasses or a headset in the future for a more immersive and effective experience. These apps are also providing Hyundai with valuable consumer insights.


This Boston-based online furniture and home goods retailer envisions its customers one day shopping for Wayfair products at home using Mixed Reality headsets. In the meantime, the company’s R&D team Wayfair Next has created WayfairView, a mobile app that leverages Google’s Augmented Reality technology Tango along with Wayfair’s growing library of 3D product models. The app lets users view full-scale virtual models of furniture and décor in their homes with an AR-capable smartphone; they can look at items from multiple angles, see whether a piece of furniture will fit in a room, etc. before buying.

For over a year now, Wayfair has been visualizing millions of its home products in 3D. The models are currently used in the shopping app and on the company’s website but are ultimately destined for a headset.

*Mike Festa, Director of Wayfair Next, will speak at EWTS Fall 2017


Virtual Reality is a powerful storytelling medium, which is why it makes for great marketing as well as an effective job training tool. After the success of last year’s online “Migraine Experience” campaign in which users could experience migraine symptoms like blurry vision and flashing lights through AR filters; Excedrin created “Excedrin Works,” a new VR video campaign from the P.O.V. of real migraine sufferers at work.

The 2016 AR campaign saw close to 400,000 social engagements. The latest VR one is expected to be even more engaging, driving home the medication brand’s purpose and driving sales. By appealing to human emotions, Excedrin is hoping viewers will understand how crippling migraines can be and why its product is necessary.

The two VR videos, created with Weber Shandwick and Hogarth, can be found on Excedrin’s website and YouTube channel. To round out the campaign, the company is also running several documentary-style videos on TV and social media, and collaborating with race car driver Danica Patrick to share her history of migraines.


The British supermarket chain has dropped a few hints that Virtual Reality is the future of shopping at Tesco. Way back in 2011, the company partnered with Cheil Worldwide to “open” a virtual supermarket in South Korea: An entire wall of a Korean subway station was made to appear like rows of shelves in a market, containing Tesco products with QR codes that commuters could scan to buy groceries on their phones. (After a long workday, it would be nice to get the food shopping done while waiting for your train—Tesco even arranged for deliveries to take place the same night.)

The subway experiment provided Tesco with insight for growing its business in SK. Around 2014, the grocery chain again used VR for R&D, wanting to improve its marketing and how it merchandized and reorganized stores. The company collaborated with Figure Digital on an Oculus Rift demo video called “Tesco Pelé” in which customers wearing VR headsets shop in a virtual supermarket, the layout of which represented an actual Tesco store design up for review. At the end of the simulation, the wearer steps onto a pro soccer field.

The possibilities here include, of course, virtual grocery shopping and consumer research; but the Pelé element (famous soccer player) suggests opportunities for corporate sponsorships, as well.


Like Wayfair, Lowe’s wants to be ready for the day when consumers use their own AR glasses and VR headsets. In Fall 2016, the home improvement chain debuted Lowe’s Vision, an app powered by Tango that lets customers measure any room in their homes and design it with virtual Lowe’s products using the Lenovo Phab 2 Pro phone.

In Spring 2017, Lowe’s began piloting Lowe’s Vision: In-Store Navigation, another Tango-powered app, in two of its stores. This second AR app makes it easier to shop for your home improvement project: Customers can use any Tango-enabled smartphone (or demo one with a sales associate) to search for products, read reviews, create shopping lists, and find the most efficient route to items throughout the store with the help of digital directions overlaid onto the real world.

One of the first AR/VR ideas to come out of Lowe’s Innovation Labs was the Holoroom in 2014/15. Now available in select stores, it’s essentially a how-to section in the store where shoppers can put on the HTC Vive headset and practice home improvement projects like tiling a bathroom in virtual reality.

Lowe’s is onto something in exposing its customers to emerging technologies that transition from their homes into actual Lowe’s stores, helping them with their home improvement projects from start to finish.


So how can your business prepare for an AR future? This is a time for innovation. Augmented and Virtual Reality represent new paradigms for sharing and taking in information. The same factors that make the technology ideal for workers – heads-up and hands-free, immersive, proven to be a superior learning method – can work for your customers and partners–figure out their pain points just as you would in determining a great use case for your workforce.How might AR/VR make it easier or more appealing for consumers to interact with your brand, seek your services, buy (and use) your product, etc.? Consider the scenario in which the business provides AR glasses for the customer/partner as well as the future one in which consumers have access to their own devices. What can you do now to begin forming a bridge between those two scenarios? 


About EWTS Fall 2017:

The Fall Enterprise Wearable Technology Summit 2017 taking place October 18-19, 2017 in Boston, MA is the leading event for wearable technology in enterprise. It is also the only true enterprise event in the wearables space, with the speakers and audience members hailing from top enterprise organizations across the industry spectrum. Consisting of real-world case studies, engaging workshops, and expert-led panel discussions on such topics as enterprise applications for Augmented and Virtual Reality, head-mounted displays, and body-worn devices, plus key challenges, best practices, and more; EWTS is the best opportunity for you to hear and learn from those organizations who have successfully utilized wearables in their operations. 


photo credit: dronepicr Kölner Dom aus Lego Gamescom via photopin (license)

Virtual Reality: Next-Level Job Training

There’s no question “job creation” is a hot topic in America today. Certain industries have been slowing down (ex. manufacturing, oil) or even dying out (ex. coal,) while new ones like clean energy and energy storage are growing to meet new needs and demands. In fact, more U.S. workers today are installing solar panels on rooftops than mining coal or extracting oil and gas. Automation isn’t solely to blame for this, nor are jobs necessarily being eliminated or moving overseas: It is our resources and needs that are changing, forcing manufacturing and oil jobs to evolve with the times, and new jobs requiring new skills to be created. Nevertheless, companies are struggling to fill their ranks, especially as the baby boomer generation hits retirement age. There is a shortage of both skilled and unskilled labor today to which American industry needs a solution.

To enterprises struggling to maintain or grow their workforces, Virtual Reality offers a powerful new paradigm for learning and capturing knowledge. Businesses are leveraging VR to train workers of all skill levels, ranks, backgrounds and work environments, from restaurant servers to astronauts, pilots and surgeons. With immersive VR headsets and customized software, job training can be more effective, less expensive and safer than traditional methods. Read how organizations both small and large are training employees in Virtual Reality:


By the end of 2017, the world’s largest retailer plans to provide VR instruction in every one of its 200 U.S. “Walmart Academy” training centers, making Virtual Reality an integral part of training 140,000 Walmart employees annually.

With startup STRIVR Labs, Walmart has developed a collection of virtual training experiences on topics like management and customer service to supplement traditional training methods. Each Walmart Academy will be outfitted with an Oculus Rift headset and gaming PC system. The VR content will consist of scenarios up to five minutes long, with interactive on-screen cues prompting trainees to make decisions in situations they might encounter in real life.

In one scenario, the user gets to virtually experience the Black Friday rush, while in another he or she scans the produce and deli sections of a store, learning to spot problems like missing prices and how to help customers. Walmart’s VR training program began as a pilot in thirty of its training centers.

*Walmart’s Brock McKeel will be speaking at the Fall 2017 Enterprise Wearable Technology Summit, along with innovators from Coca-Cola, Audi, Staples, Gulfstream, and more.

United Rentals

United Rentals is the largest equipment rental company in North America, providing thousands of pieces of equipment and tools for industrial and construction sites. To train its sales staff, United Rental takes new hires through a weeklong training program, in which they’re given lectures and shown pictures of worksites. But the company has recently been testing Virtual Reality to complete the training in half that time, and make it more memorable.

In United Rentals’ VR training scenario, new employees have two minutes standing on the edge of a virtual construction site to observe and determine what equipment is missing; as soon as the site manager (an avatar) approaches, they have to make their sales pitch. For example, if the user were looking at an excavation filled with water, he or she would learn to recognize the opportunity to rent a pump to that customer.

United Rentals plans to train more seasoned employees in addition to new hires using VR technology.


This Oshkoch Corporation company designs, manufacturers and markets lift equipment for use in all industries. As one might imagine, job training at JLG can be dangerous. For instance, workers have to learn how to operate boom lifts from platforms that can be up to 185 feet above the ground. Virtual Reality presents a much safer and even more efficient way to train multiple operators at once.

With ForgeFx Simulations, JLG developed a networked training system simulator, allowing trainees from all over the world to operate machines in the same virtual reality construction site at the same time. This style of virtual group learning is far safer than training on real machines. Already, 50 of JLG’s customers have expressed interest in the program.


Honeygrow is a Philadelphia-based upscale fast-food chain serving farm-to-fork stir-fry and salads. Before the privately-owned restaurant expanded, its owner would personally welcome all new hires. Today, there are 17 Honeygrow locations from Washington to Brooklyn, and still more in the process of opening. New workers are given a written manual, and initial training is largely left up to local managers.

Seeking a better way to introduce new employees to the corporate culture and teach them best practices, Honeygrow partnered with Klip Collective to create a unique virtual reality onboarding program that could be used at all of its locations. Wearing VR headsets, trainees are greeted by Honeygrow’s owner in a virtual restaurant; they hear the company philosophy, go on an interactive tour of the restaurant, and play a game to learn food-prep techniques and important health safety information.

Honeygrow has found that learning-by-doing in a virtual environment helps new workers grasp and retain their training. In the future, the restaurant may explore the use of Augmented Reality in addition to VR, which would allow trainees to do hands-on food prep with superimposed directions and a timer.


Augmented and Virtual Reality may be the answer to the current and impending labor shortage. Immersive technologies are useful for quickly and effectively training new workers (as well as recruiting them,) and even a company’s most experienced employees require training at various points in their careers. While VR allows workers to train in a virtual simulation of the workplace; AR (and also Assisted Reality) enables on-the-job and just-in-time training, begging the question: Will the future connected worker even need training?


About EWTS Fall 2017:

The Fall Enterprise Wearable Technology Summit 2017 taking place October 18-19, 2017 in Boston, MA is the leading event for wearable technology in enterprise. It is also the only true enterprise event in the wearables space, with the speakers and audience members hailing from top enterprise organizations across the industry spectrum. Consisting of real-world case studies, engaging workshops, and expert-led panel discussions on such topics as enterprise applications for Augmented and Virtual Reality, head-mounted displays, and body-worn devices, plus key challenges, best practices, and more; EWTS is the best opportunity for you to hear and learn from those organizations who have successfully utilized wearables in their operations. 

3 Great Use Cases of Wearable Tech for EHS

According to the most recent data from the International Labor Organization, every 15 seconds a worker dies from a work-related accident or disease. On top of 2.3 million deaths per year from occupational accidents, over 313 million workers suffer non-fatal work injuries. The great human cost also has an economic impact: For employers, on-the-job accidents cost billions of dollars annually due to production downtime and workers’ compensation fees.

Can technology help prevent work-related accidents and diseases? The majority of workplace injuries are easily preventable through real-time monitoring of workers. After all, connected workers – aware of (and sensed by) their environment through IoT technologies – are inherently safer.

Wearable technology can greatly improve workplace safety. For example,

  • Smart bands and sensors embedded in clothing and gear can be used to monitor workers’ health and wellbeing by tracking such factors as heartrate, respiration, heat stress, fatigue and exposure. Notifications can be sent to workers’ wearable devices when critical levels are reached.
  • Machine and environmental sensors can provide contextual information to field workers to help keep them informed and aware of their surroundings; and wearable GPS tracking can ensure they keep out of hazardous areas.
  • Smart glasses and other HUDs allow employees to access work instructions and manuals in the field, in addition to enabling remote guidance. This aids their productivity and makes them safer, since accuracy (doing a job correctly) and safety go hand-in-hand.
  • Camera-equipped wearables can also be used to document a job or incident for later review. Such data can be utilized for safety training and to identify safety issues in the work environment.

In addition to providing real-time safety information and alerts to workers, wearable devices make for a safer workplace simply by the way in which they are used, i.e. hands-free. There are some great real-world use cases of wearable technology for environmental health and safety. Read on to learn how three major enterprises are using wearables of different form factors to augment their safety efforts:

North Star Bluescope Steel

This steel producer is working with IBM on developing a cognitive platform that taps into IBM Watson Internet of Things technology to keep employees safe in dangerous environments.

The IBM Employee Wellness and Safety Solution gathers and analyzes sensor data collected from smart helmets and wristbands to provide real-time alerts to workers and their managers. If a worker’s physical wellbeing is compromised or safety procedures aren’t being followed, preventative measures can be taken.

North Star is using the solution to combat heat stress, collecting data from a variety of sensors installed to continuously monitor a worker’s skin body temperature, heart rate, galvanic skin response and activity level, along with the temperature and humidity of the work environment. If temperatures rise to unsafe levels, the technology provides safety guidelines to each employee based upon his or her individual metrics. For instance, the solution might advise an at-risk worker to take a 10-minute break in the shade.

With the IBM Employee Wellness and Safety Solution, data flows from the worker to the IBM Watson IoT platform and then to a supervisor for intervention/prevention. Watson can detect hazardous combinations from the wearable sensor data, like high skin temperature plus a raised heart rate and lack of movement (indicating heat stress,) and notify the appropriate person to take action. This same platform could be used to prevent excessive exposure to radiation, noise, toxic gases and more.

John Deere

John Deere, best known as a manufacturer of agricultural equipment and machinery, is using Virtual Reality headsets to evaluate and assess the “assembly feasibility” of new machine designs. Performing ergonomic evaluations in VR improves the safety of production employees by revealing the biomechanics of putting a proposed machine together. High risk processes can be identified and corrected before they pose a problem for the assembler on the shop floor.

In one of these VR reviews at John Deere, an operator puts on a headset and becomes completely immersed in a virtual production environment. Reviewers can see what the operator sees, and determine whether a potential design is safe to manufacture. They can see all the safety aspects that would go into assembling the product, including how the worker’s posture would be affected, whether there is chance of physical injury, what kinds of tools would be required, etc.

John Deere believes VR-aided design evaluations can result in less fatigue, fewer accidents, and greater productivity for its manufacturing team, and the method has already proven effective in reducing injuries at the company. Learn more about this use case at EWTS 2017, where Janelle Haines, Ergonomic Analyst and Biomedical Engineer at John Deere, will participate in an interactive workshop on “Leveraging Virtual Reality in the Enterprise.”

National Grid

The electricity and gas utility company is exploring wearable tech for lone worker health and safety. National Grid believes wearables can have multiple advantages in the workplace, including improving safety as well as speeding up the process of repairs and reducing costs. The ngLabs team is responsible for looking at the latest technologies; in one of its first projects, the team is focusing on the critical worker:

The project uses interactive wristbands developed by Microsoft to monitor the health, safety and wellbeing of workers who operate alone or remotely. The smart bands track location, measure vital statistics like heart rate, and enable remote/lone workers to send a signal to colleagues when they’ve arrived on site or checked out without having to make a call or fill out paperwork. Information is captured quickly, making it easier to spot problems and send alerts if something goes wrong.

Hear more about this use case in San Diego this May—David Goldsby, Technology Innovation Manager at National Grid, will present a case study on “Digital Disruption and Consumerization in Utilities” at EWTS ’17.


About EWTS 2017:

The 3rd annual Enterprise Wearable Technology Summit 2017 taking place May 10-12, 2017 in San Diego, California is the leading event for wearable technology in enterprise. It is also the only true enterprise event in the wearables space, with the speakers and audience members hailing from top enterprise organizations across the industry spectrum. Consisting of real-world case studies, engaging workshops, and expert-led panel discussions on such topics as enterprise applications for Augmented and Virtual Reality, head-mounted displays, and body-worn devices, plus key challenges, best practices, and more; EWTS is the best opportunity for you to hear and learn from those organizations who have successfully utilized wearables in their operations. 

Defining New Realities: Augmented, Virtual and Mixed

It’s a new year, so let’s start it off on the right foot or, rather, in the right reality. First item on the agenda: Clarifying our use of the terms AR, VR and MR.

As a larger community, enterprise wearable tech users, solution providers, experts and enthusiasts need to get on the same page in 2017. For one, they need to see “eye to eye” when it comes to distinguishing between Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality and Mixed Reality, for there are too many conflicting definitions out there. We cannot communicate and problem solve across industries without common understanding or a common framework.

Differing classifications for AR, VR and MR make clear communication between solution providers and end users problematic. Solution providers seem to have their own unique ways of not only describing the different realities but also of categorizing their own solutions; while end users often don’t fully understand the current capabilities and limitations of these technologies, or appreciate which “reality” would best serve their business needs.

Sibling technologies? Kissing cousins? Competing realities? And is MR truly a combination of both AR and VR?

It seems most people get the concept of Virtual Reality; it’s the differences between Augmented Reality and Mixed Reality that are less clear. End users and experts don’t seem to be on the same page, with everyone describing these new realities differently and some even throwing the term “Assisted Reality” into the mix. Let’s consider how several insiders are explaining AR, VR and MR; and then we will offer our own set of descriptions as a unifying framework for ongoing discussion.

J.P. Gownder (VP and Principal Analyst, Forrester Research) laid the academic groundwork for us during his presentation at EWTS ’16: According to this expert, Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality and Mixed Reality are a set of experiences that lie upon a continuum known as the Virtuality Continuum between the Real World and the Digital World (composed entirely of pixels.) These experiences are created using “fictitious or recorded content that [was once] in the real world but is now pixelated.” Main takeaway: AR, VR and MR are different experiences that extend upon the real world—all part of what J.P. called the “Extended Reality revolution.”

So how does an expert like Gownder define the three experiences?

  • AR: One possible experience is to augment what you see by superimposing information either off to the side or on top of your field of view. (Some people distinguish between AR, in which digital info appears over your field of view, and Assisted Reality, in which information appears in a corner of your vision.)
  • VR: You can also “augment the virtual world” in what J.P . terms “Augmented Virtuality.” Good VR is achieved through 3D imagery, 360-degree viewpoints, and 3D sound—all contributing to a highly immersive experience.
  • MR: J.P. approached MR as “a special case of AR with some VR characteristics.” Instead of mere superimposed information, MR features interactive holograms integrated into the user’s real world.

On the solution side, Atheer’s Christian Prusia had a slightly different take on AR, describing it as an experience in which you see the natural world but there is a “computer overlay” that follows you, remaining in your field of view even when you turn your head. “AR is aware of the real world but the UI is floating, not fixed.” MR, on the other hand, involves mapping the real world and tying a computer image to a fixed (anchor) point in real space. Finally, in VR, “everything is fake.”

So, again, AR involves a computer overlay of information in your field of view. This information can be contextual but the display is not anchored in the real world; it moves with you. VR is an entirely generated digital experience in a virtual space; and MR consists of computer images that appear to exist within and relate to the user’s real environment.

Joakim Elvander of Sony focused more closely on the nuances among and different uses for AR, MR and what some call Assisted Reality:

  • AR involves “in-field-of-view graphics,” and is most appropriate in those cases where there is a need for superimposed information yet it is still important to see the real world. (Your FOV remains largely unobstructed.)
  • MR features “3D models [attached] to an anchor in the real-world environment,” and is great for visualization. Reality is “just a backdrop” in this experience; the user is viewing and interacting with the computer-generated model, making for a potentially obstructive experience (because MR is more immersive than AR.)
  • Joakim also used the term “side-screen” in describing an experience like Assisted Reality, or what one might see through a pair of Google Glass. Assisted Reality involves purely textual or basic visual information that is not necessarily tied to the real world.

Confused yet? Some clarification is in order. Part of the problem lies in how solution providers like Christian and Joakim self-categorize or refer to their own technologies. Both used rather unique verbiage or phrasing above, while Gownder – representing Academia – drew upon the long history of these technologies. End users, for their part, seem to seek to define AR, VR and MR in terms of how they are applying them. Below we offer our own “definitive guide” to the differences among the new realities:

The EnterpriseWear Definitive Guide to AR, VR and MR

AR, VR and MR are three technologies that all create a computer-generated reality for the user to participate in, optimally through some kind of head-mounted display. Each one, however, presents its version of reality in a unique way, with computer-generated objects and images ranging from basic text and visuals to convincing holograms to lifelike simulations. What sets the three apart from one another is how those objects interact with the user and his or her environment.

Augmented Reality involves overlaying digital content onto the real world. In this experience, the user is still very aware of and can interact with his environment. For the sake of simplicity, I would argue that Assisted Reality is Augmented Reality, whether the computer-generated overlay appears in front of both eyes or just in the corner of one. The digital content can be quite basic (i.e. arrows and other universal symbols, simple text or drawn lines, perhaps triggered by your location or a verbal command or put there by a remote expert) or it might be more elaborate (a building plan, for ex.); but the information cannot be manipulated in a dynamic way and will remain in your field of view as you turn your head with your heads-up display on.

Mixed Reality is like the wild card in the discussion, often used interchangeably with AR though they are not the same. MR is more immersive than AR but less so than VR, blurring the line between the digital and real worlds more than AR but not replacing the real world with an entirely virtual experience as VR does.

MR is capable of 3D mapping the real world and superimposing convincing holographic images onto reality; the holograms are responsive to the real world because they are integrated into the user’s environment. Think of it this way: In AR, digital content appears on top of your view of the real world, but in MR holograms and other 3D content appear to share the user’s space and are receptive to both the user’s interaction and changes in the real-world environment.

Whereas AR and MR are additive experiences, Virtual Reality is immersive, creating a computer-generated environment that replaces the real world. The user interacts solely within this virtual world. So, in VR, your view of the real world – the real room you are standing in – disappears, being replaced with a virtual space filled with virtual objects and moving elements with which you can interact.

  • How do you distinguish among AR, VR and MR? Agree or disagree with our descriptions? Care to make your own suggestions or further clarifications? Let us know in the comments below. Let us, as a community, come up with one universal set of definitions. 


About EWTS 2017:

The 3rd annual Enterprise Wearable Technology Summit 2017 taking place May 10-12, 2017 in San Diego, California is the leading event for wearable technology in enterprise. It is also the only true enterprise event in the wearables space, with the speakers and audience members hailing from top enterprise organizations across the industry spectrum. Consisting of real-world case studies, engaging workshops, and expert-led panel discussions on such topics as enterprise applications for Augmented and Virtual Reality, head-mounted displays, and body-worn devices, plus key challenges, best practices, and more; EWTS is the best opportunity for you to hear and learn from those organizations who have successfully utilized wearables in their operations. 

Top Use Cases of Augmented and Virtual Reality in Architecture, Engineering and Design

In our last post, we talked about some of the opportunities that new realities – Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality, and also Mixed Reality – present to the AEC Industry, specifically to the design side of the industry (as opposed to construction.) With these technologies, one can view and manipulate virtual elements in real space or immerse him/herself in a digital recreation of a real-world environment. This can help both in designing a building and in enabling others to understand the design.

The user could be the architect in the initial design stage, or the owner/customer in the pitch or approval stage; a group of architects, engineers and designers working together on a single project, or the construction team responsible for turning a building plan into actual architecture—all putting on a headset or heads-up display to visualize and create. The three use cases that follow are prime examples of this, of AR, VR and MR being used to envision new buildings and streamline the design process.



TreeHouse is a Texas-based home improvement startup offering eco-friendly, smart home solutions. For its second massive retail location in Dallas, TreeHouse CEO Jason Ballard wanted a store with zero annual energy costs—a completely sustainable store where consumers could buy sustainability solutions for their own homes. Now, the sustainability initiatives achieved at this, the company’s second big box store, are impressive. Just as impressive, however, is the use of Virtual Reality in the architectural design process that led to the groundbreaking for the store. In fact, VR was so valuable in this use case that TreeHouse intends to employ the technology in every step of future store planning. Let’s see why:

First thing, Ballard hired architecture firm Lake Flato along with a team of designers and technologists charged with the task of creating a virtual reality model of the new store based upon Lake Flato’s design. The team “hacked together” a system combining Unity (a video game development platform), SketchUp (a design program), and an Oculus Rift VR headset. This system would allow Ballard and the Lake Flato architects to virtually walk through the store, trying different design options and configurations and spotting problems before they became real-life headaches.

Big box retail stores typically use a lot of energy; in this project, the design team started with the idea of zero energy and then worked to reverse engineer the means to achieve it. Sustainable building requires conserving as much energy as possible and using renewable energy for any remaining power needs. Since the greatest “energy hogs” in a large store are usually lighting and air conditioning, the team knew they had to create something “bright and cool.” They used virtual reality to realize the key design decision, which was a saw-tooth roof line. Without going into too much detail (you can read more about the design specifics here), the roof design had three major effects: 1) lighting the space, 2) reducing solar heat gain, and 3) maximizing solar energy production; with the added bonus of looking really cool.

Using virtual reality technology in the design process on this project turned out to be both a critical energy- and cost-saving innovation. In one example, VR saved TreeHouse $50,000, by allowing the design team to try out an element of the original design – an elaborate staircase meant to evoke a tree trunk – and see that it would be a “great eyesore.” The staircase was subsequently scrapped for something simpler and cheaper before it was ever built.

As TreeHouse plans its third store, Ballard wants to create a full-time VR position at the company. Not only does he want to keep using virtual reality to design new stores but he also sees potential for the technology to help scout out store locations and design product displays in existing stores. He wants live models of all TreeHouse locations so that he can try out displays without traveling or resorting to trial-and-error, both of which are costly and environmentally-unfriendly. And, of course, Ballard wants to pass the benefits of VR along to TreeHouse’s customers, helping them to design sustainable homes in virtual reality for free.


TEG Architects and Thorntons

TEG is an Indiana-based architecture firm, and its client Thorntons is a Kentucky gas station and convenience store chain. TEG has been using Virtual Reality – specifically Samsung Gear VR headsets – to help bring clients like Thorntons into the design process by putting them into buildings that haven’t been built yet, or rather into 360-degree renderings of those buildings.

Before VR and the like, architects could show clients 2D drawings and 3D printouts to help them understand a space and give input on different design elements. In the end, however, a lot was left up to the customer’s imagination. Well, it’s pretty hard to imagine a 100,000-square-foot space (like the one in this use case), but having a 360-degree view of the architect’s design in virtual reality makes communication between architect and client easier.

Not only did VR give Thorntons better insight into and confidence in TEG’s design, but the technology actually revealed quirks of the design that might have been lost on paper, even to the design team. One aspect of a building that can get lost between 2D and 3D are sight lines. For example, in the Thorntons project, a monumental staircase – as originally designed – would have disrupted the sight line from the front to the back of the building; the architects were able to catch this blunder in virtual reality, and make the decision to narrow the staircase.

While the customer was thoroughly impressed by VR (so much so that Thorntons invested in four Samsung Gear VR headsets to use and experiment with internally); TEG found that incorporating the new technology required reformulating existing workflows. So in addition to the obvious technical challenges, adopting VR as a decision-making tool in architecture can necessitate accelerating the design process, or making certain design decisions much earlier on in the project lifecycle in order to create an effective 360-degree view. Another challenge – but one that TEG believes will be resolved as VR becomes more widely used in the industry – was to keep careful track of all design changes, ensuring that any alterations made in the design software appeared in the VR model and vice versa.

The TEG/Thorntons case goes to show that new realities can be a great tool for both architects and clients to make better-informed decisions, making for less unhappy and costly surprises all around.


Architect Greg Lynn and the Packard Plant Project

Greg Lynn is the owner of Greg Lynn FORM, a professor at the UCLA School of the Arts and Architecture, and the architect chosen to represent the U.S. at the 2016 Venice Biennale. For that event, Lynn was assigned the project of revitalizing the Packard Plant, an abandoned car factory in Detroit occupying 3.5 million square feet of space. Greg knew the project would stretch the imagination and that he had to be forward-thinking in his commission; so in perhaps the best-known use case of AR/MR in architecture, he decided to use the Microsoft HoloLens mixed reality headset along with Trimble’s building information modeling (BIM) software to develop his design for a new plant.

To begin, Lynn created a standard design model of the abandoned Packard Plant using the Trimble platform. He then used HoloLens to immerse himself in a holographic representation of the factory at scale. With the technology, Lynn was able to virtually navigate the space at all stages of the design – from the initial state in which he found the plant through each proposed design change – visualizing the project as he was designing it and without having to leave his Venice Beach office.

From the get-go, therefore, Lynn immediately understood the scale of the space he was working with because he could enter the Packard Plant in augmented reality and look around. He could also put on the HoloLens to compare the sizes of various structures and get a clear sense of how much space a given structure would take up, which enabled him to develop and perfect the proportions and individual features of his design without trying out different configurations in multiple 2D or 3D (scale) drawings and models. Even more, the technology allowed Lynn to model dynamic components of his design like vehicles and human beings, and make adjustments accounting for how traffic would flow in and around the factory.

Overall, AR/MR provided Lynn with the “perspective and foresight” to make design decisions months earlier in the design process than is normally possible, saving him in time and stress in addition to money and rework. We’ve also mentioned that new realities present an effective means of communicating one’s design to others via a shared experience, and Lynn did in fact incorporate the Microsoft HoloLens into his presentation for the Biennale.

Greg Lynn has been pretty vocal about AR, VR and MR in terms of the future of designing buildings as well as the future of building things. HoloLens personally helped him to both conceptualize and showcase his work, but the architect also sees potential benefits in construction project delivery and communication. In his opinion, new realities solve the greatest problem all architects encounter, which is getting a project from the screen to physical space.

“I’ve spent my whole life trying to get things from geometry into the physical world. HoloLens is going to bridge that gap between two-dimensional and three-dimensional and physical space—and that’s architecture.”

Augmented and Virtual Reality for Architecture, Engineering and Design


What is the potential for Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality in the AEC industry? How might viewing virtual objects integrated into one’s physical environment or immersing oneself into a virtual world benefit the AEC sector? In this article, we will focus specifically on the use of augmented and virtual reality technology on head-mounted displays by architects, engineers and designers in the building design process.

There is potential for both AR and VR in all stages of bringing a construction or engineering project to life; pretty much every enterprise involved in a large project could utilize these technologies to improve their own working methods and also in communicating with one another. In the actual building phase, for example, AR could be used to help project managers view plans and schematics overlaid on top of real structures, to allow workers to view step-by-step instructions for how to install something, and even to train future operators of a building. But before construction even gets going – in the initial design process – AR and VR could change the way architects, engineers and designers conceive of, collaborate on, and revise designs.

First thing, let’s talk about what goes into designing a building, including current visualization tools; and let’s define the different “realities,” i.e. AR, VR and also MR (Mixed Reality). Architects and engineers “trade in” the creation and manipulation of the real world, of real environments, real structures; so, essentially, they have to dream in three dimensions and then translate that vision into a two-dimensional representation which is then translated again into a real, three-dimensional space.

The process really begins, however, with collecting information, with visiting a site (or multiple sites) and documenting existing conditions. This information, as well as client demands and requirements, is put into consideration as the architect or engineer begins to brainstorm and develop a preliminary design. In addition to the property or site itself, the designer must think about how the final building will be used and experienced, including how people and objects will move through the space and what materials it will be composed of. Next come graphics, illustrations, plans, diagrams, elevations, even small scale models—lots of paper and lots of time using complex software go into getting the designer’s ideas into a format that can be shared and presented for input and feedback.

For a typical medium-sized or major commercial commission, the design is rarely a one-architect deal. Designing a building is an increasingly collaborative process, so while the initial creative idea usually belongs to one designer, the final design is a team effort (“it takes a village.”) The core design team might consist of an architect, a few engineers (structural, mechanical, services, fire), and specialist designers (landscape, interior, acoustic); and they might be supported by various experts and advisors like an urban planner, a sustainability consultant, and an expert in health and safety. Contributions may also be made by contractors and suppliers. These individuals come together, discuss options and restraints, and revise the original design until a final one is agreed upon. Much of the work undertaken – the multiple design possibilities expressed in a sequence of technical drawings and models – is rejected or aborted in the process.

Visualization technologies like computer-aided design (CAD) and building information modeling (BIM) help architects to plan projects and communicate their ideas; but they’re not always successful in doing so. For one, the software is highly complex; and the digital drawings and models produced are still confined to a two-dimensional screen, which makes it hard – for collaborators and clients as well as the architects themselves – to get a real, accurate sense of how a design will look, function, and take up space in the real world. CAD and BIM have certainly technologically enabled architects and engineers but the reality is that designers are still viewing blueprints on computer screens as well as paper; they’re still using pictures and drawings and plans, and it’s difficult to conceive, revise and execute a project based upon static renderings.

The drawbacks of those current technologies make the process of design reviews rather lengthy and expensive; and inevitably lead to issues down the road, during construction, that cost dearly. The problem lies in using 2D documents and 3D models – both digital and physical scale models – to simulate form and space, understand spatial relationships, and capture the experiential qualities of a building, which must impact the design. The existing tools just aren’t optimal for expressing the architect’s vision or tweaking a design. There’s a lot of room for unanticipated design flaws that will have to be corrected once building has already commenced—errors arising from the architect’s own oversight as well as the client and construction team not being able to clearly imagine the design. On the bright side, new technologies – AR, VR and MR – can help at all stages of a building project, from conception to revision to execution, improving both the individual and group design processes.

Wearable tech, AR/VR, IoT—they’re all about eliminating inefficiencies, bridging knowledge gaps, and streamlining processes in a business. An architect’s work is no different. There are inefficiencies in the design process: Multiple iterations of a design, miscommunications between architect and client or between design team and contractor, trial and error = inefficient. But new realities enable architects, engineers and designers to better and more easily visualize ideas and make quicker, more informed decisions, avoiding costly scenarios like customer dissatisfaction and tear downs/rework during construction.

AR, VR and MR are all related:

  • Augmented reality is additive, overlaying digital content onto the real world. The user is aware of and can still interact with his environment. Devices include the Sony SmartEyeglass, Recon Jet, Epson Moverio BT-300, Vuzix M300 and, of course, Google Glass.
  • Virtual reality is immersive, creating a computer-generated environment that replaces the real world. The user interacts solely within this virtual world. Devices include the Oculus Rift, Samsung Gear VR, and HTC Vive.
  • AR and MR are used somewhat interchangedly, but they are different. Some describe mixed reality as a kind of hybrid between the other two technologies. MR superimposes convincing holographic images onto reality; the holograms are integrated into the user’s environment, can be manipulated, and are even responsive to the real world. Devices: Microsoft HoloLens and Magic Leap.

So what do these technologies allow designers to do? Architects can actually use AR/VR to design buildings, not just to better convey their ideas or collaborate with others but to create and make design decisions. Virtual reality allows a user to virtually inhabit a space in three dimensions; this virtual space can be based upon – even identical to – a real-world environment. So, for instance, at the outset of the design process an architect could go out and capture a physical environment (the property he is designing for) and recreate it in VR, and then design within that virtual space with infinite “room” to experiment and test out different design concepts—all from the comfort of his or her office or studio. The architect could also take a design developed on an architectural platform like Autodesk and produce it in VR, allowing him – and others members of the design team – to virtually inhabit and manipulate a building that does not yet exist.

That is a much more powerful (and effective) means to visualize one’s ideas and evaluate design possibilities. An architect can translate a CAD model into an interactive walk through: Instead of viewing blueprints of 3D models on a 2D screen, he can put on, say, an Oculus Rift to virtually experience an architectural plan; achieving a far better sense of scale, form and space, of the physical limitations of a space, of how someone will move through a building, of how a particular design component will look or function, and the flaws in a design that might not otherwise be realized without multiple scale models or even until construction had gotten underway. In addition, the owner/customer and the construction team will be able to more comprehensively understand the building design before it is executed thanks to virtual reality technology.

Augmented reality and mixed reality will also help enhance and speed up the design process at the outset of a project, with the trickle-down effect of minimizing delays at the construction stage due to design errors and changes. AR and MR present their own unique opportunities to view and manipulate digital representations or facsimiles of physical realities, but these representations are not immersive. Apple CEO Tim Cook recently compared AR and VR, saying that augmented reality “gives the capability for both of us to sit and be very present talking to each other, but also have other things visually for both of us to see;” virtual reality, on the other hand, “sort of encloses and immerses the person into an experience.” So while VR is great for solo design, AR and MR are perhaps better for group design and collaboration.

So, for instance, mixed reality can be used to simulate a meeting or collaborative space, allowing the various professionals who make up the design team on a complex building project to work together in real time, viewing and interacting with the same virtual model – or rather with holograms superimposed on a physical model or integrated into a physical space (like the building site) – via a HoloLens headset; and they don’t have to be in the same room to do so. Essentially, with AR/VR/MR, the process of design reviews can be completely virtualized–all existing visualization tools and the 3D models they create can be “pushed” beyond the 2D screen into virtual environments or projections on physical models that designers can interact with(in) in real time.

In conclusion, the ability to immerse people into virtual worlds – specifically into digital simulations of proposed buildings – will be a game changer for the AEC industry. New realities – augmented, virtual, mixed – offer a new, far superior level of real-world scale, proportion and perspective over current tools. These technologies will empower architects, engineers and designers to become more innovative by freeing them from the limitations of 3D models in 2D formats and bringing their 3D dreams to life.

Stay tuned for our next post, in which we will share some of the top use cases of Augmented and Virtual Reality for architecture, engineering, and design.


About EWTS 2017:

The 3rd annual Enterprise Wearable Technology Summit 2017 taking place May 10-12, 2017 in San Diego, California is the leading event for wearable technology in enterprise. It is also the only true enterprise event in the wearables space, with the speakers and audience members hailing from top enterprise organizations across the industry spectrum. Consisting of real-world case studies, engaging workshops, and expert-led panel discussions on such topics as enterprise applications for Augmented and Virtual Reality, head-mounted displays, and body-worn devices, plus key challenges, best practices, and more; EWTS is the best opportunity for you to hear and learn from those organizations who have successfully utilized wearables in their operations. 

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